In evaluating the conclusions of the authors from the results of any “empirical” study, two important questions one should ask oneself are: What assumptions are the authors making, and are those assumptions justified?
At first, they inspected the planes in order to determine where the bullet holes mostly were. They figured that the parts of the plane that were hit the most often should be where the most armor should be placed, since (as the thinking went) those places must be where being hit was the most likely. Strangely, the engine seemed to be the part of the planes most frequently spared from bullet holes.
Here is the abstract:
Authors: Nicol K. Pope M. Sprengelmeyer R. Young AW. Hall J.
Title: Social judgment in borderline personality disorder.
Source: PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource]. 8(11):e73440, 2013.
BACKGROUND: Those with a diagnosis of BPD often display difficulties with social interaction and struggle to form and maintain interpersonal relationships. Here we investigated the ability of participants with BPD to make social inferences from faces.
METHOD: 20 participants with BPD and 21 healthy controls were shown a series of faces and asked to judge these according to one of six characteristics (age, distinctiveness, attractiveness, intelligence, approachability, trustworthiness). The number and direction of errors made (compared to population norms) were recorded for analysis.
RESULTS: Participants with a diagnosis of BPD displayed significant impairments in making judgments from faces. In particular, the BPD Group judged faces as less approachable and less trustworthy than controls. Furthermore, within the BPD Group there was a correlation between scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and bias towards judging faces as unapproachable.
CONCLUSION: Individuals with a diagnosis of BPD have difficulty making
appropriate social judgments about others from their faces. Judging more faces as unapproachable and untrustworthy indicates that this group may have a heightened sensitivity to perceiving potential threat, and this should be considered in clinical management and treatment.
In using these nouns, the authors are making some rather strange assumptions. A clue that they are doing that is also in the abstract: It mentions that the patients with BPD were far more traumatized as children than the controls.