Academic medicine and psychology have always been like that to some extent, but it’s been getting worse and worse lately. It’s a wonder anyone wants to become an academic these days. In academic medicine, there has also been a new push: invent something you can patent like a new drug or device that will make a profit for the University.
The authors also found that journals often soft-peddle the reasons for any retractions that they do make. Incomplete, uninformative or misleading retraction announcements have led to a previous underestimation of the role of fraud in the ongoing retraction epidemic. Zoe Corbyn of the journal Nature opined that authors and journals may use opaque retraction notices to save face or avoid libel charges.
We have to look closely if the results are suspect because of the way the sample of subjects was selected and/or screened. I described in a previous post an excellent example of authors completely mischaracterizing the sample of subjects in a journal article published in the premier medical journal of our times.
This is primarily because of a major problem in such studies that concerns the nature of subjects selected for a study.
Second, in physics, other variables that change over time can be kept out of the experiment's environment. Not so with aspects of people’s lives. Third, measurement instruments in psychology are often based on highly subjective criteria such as self-report data or rather limited observations interpreted by the experimenter.