No effort, or only a half-baked one, is made in these studies to differentiate acting out from other possible causes for the patient’s hyperactive behavior or difficulties in maintaining focus.
And as we all know, any difference simply must be an abnormality.
In fact, the study says absolutely nothing about whether these research subjects cannot pay attention or simply are not paying attention.
Here are the results. Hypoactivation is a term meaning that the affected part of the brain is less active, on average, than it might be in a comparison subject. Of course, how active such a brain part might depends strongly on the motivations of the particular subjects. (This is analogous to the results of IQ tests, which are biased against those people who don’t give a damn about how well they do on the test). Hyperactivation means the opposite.
Surely, whether more or less activity in a region of the brain is pathological is entirely pre-supposed by the authors without any valid justification. It is basically a value judgment.
That disclaimer is added to give the authors plausible deniability, and will of course be completely ignored by readers if it is noticed at all.